Harappa The vast mounds at Harappa stand on the left bank of the now dry course of the Ravi River in the Punjab. They were excavated between and by the Archaeological Survey of India, in by Wheeler, and in the late 20th century by an American and Pakistani team. The lower city is partly occupied by a modern village, and it has been seriously disturbed by erosion and brick robbers.
In this article we will discuss about the food, social Dress, ornaments, house hold articles, amusements, trade, social class and structure, religion and funerary customs of the people of Indus Valley Civilization.
This will give us an overview of the Socio-economic activities of the Indus People. The cosmopolitan character of the population proves that the Indus valley was the meeting place of the people of various races. The people had good understanding of an urban civilization.
Besides food was supplied from distant areas by boats plying on the rivers. Rice was probably grown in the Indus valley. The staple food of the people comprised wheat, barley, rice, milk and some vegetables like peas, sesamums and fruits like date palms. Mutton, pork, poultry, fish etc. Agriculture appears to be the main occupation of the Indus people.
The discovery of a granary at Harappa Burial practices harrapa support to this. Probably wool was also used. The garments might have been sewn. Both men and women used two pieces of cloth. The men folk wore some lower garment like dhoti and upper garment like shawl.
The upper garment wrapped the left shoulder. Female attire was the same as that of men. Arts and crafts and trade formed one of the main occupations of the people. The potter, the mason, the metal worker had high demand.
The cotton and woolen dresses show the existence of cotton and woolen industries. Goldsmiths and silversmiths made ornaments.
Hair-style, Ornaments of people of Indus Valley Men wore long hair, parted in the middle and kept tidy at the back. The women of Indus valley usually wore long hair in plait with fan-shaped bow at the end.
Fillets made of gold or silver were used to keep the hair in particular position. Both men and women of Harappa were fond of ornaments made of gold, silver and copper.
The ornaments were decorated with precious stones like jade, carnelian, agate and lapis-lazuli. The female beauties of the Indus valley had a taste for toilet culture like their modern sisters. The art of pottery attained a wonderful excellence at Mohenjo-Daro.
This is proved by painted and glazed wares. Most of the kitchen utensils including jars, vessels, dishes etc. Domestic implements like axe, knife, needles, saws etc. Copper supply was limited as it had to be imported from outside.
So copper had to be discretely used for making necessary implements and weapons like axe, lance, and dagger. There is lack of defensive weapons like sword. Chairs and tools were used for decorating rooms and for sitting comfortably. Amusements of Indus Valley people Dicing was a favorite pastime.
Clay modeling was general social amusements of people.
The Indus children had the advantages of playing with animal shaped toys made of clay. Rich people had spacious courtyards. They used to spend time with their friends and families. Animals of Indus Valley Some of animals living in the Indus valley were domesticated while others were wild.
The remains of humped bull, buffalo, sheep, elephant, pig and camel have been found. Dogs, cats were also domesticated. Formerly, it was believed that the Indus people did not tame horses as domestic animals. However, the bones and skeletons of horses have been found at Kalibangan and Sukanjodaro in the upper layers.
Perhaps at a late stage of the Indus civilization horses were domesticated.Indus Civilization. STUDY. PLAY. Harrapa & Mohenjo-Daro. The two most important cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization; built along the Indus R.
mythical creatures and burial practices point towards an organized religion. Trade Evidence. Stone seals found in Mesopotamia. Read more about Burial of woman and infant, Harappa Burial of adult man, Harappa The body may have been wrapped in a shroud, and was then placed inside a wooden coffin, which was entombed in a rectangular pit surrounded with burial offerings in pottery vessels.
From to b.c. a transitional phase can be identified, during which pottery traditions, burial practices, and other cultural patterns began to change. What followed was a longer period of transformation and eventual decline that continued until around b.c.
in the region around Harappa, but may have lasted as late as b.c. in. The Harappan burial ritual has been deduced from the burial grounds at Harappa and Lothal. It is characterized by single and double burials, with the dead lying in a supine position in flat graves; the grave goods consisted primarily of pottery.
Research into the burial practices of the Harappan Civilization has thus far been limited. The most limiting factor has been the distribution of burials between a relatively small number of sites at which burials have been identified. Harappa. The vast mounds at Harappa stand on the left bank of the now dry course of the Ravi River in the Punjab.
They were excavated between and by the Archaeological Survey of India, in by Wheeler, and in the late 20th century by an American and Pakistani team.